Challenges to addressing NELD

The value of NELD is highly context-dependent (loss of land may mean a substantial loss of identity to one person and a mere nuisance of having to relocate to another) and some items may be deemed irreplaceable. This renders comparability and monetary assessment difficult. Given that many NELD items do often not occur in distinct units and monetary value is not available, quantification is often equally problematic. The challenge will thus be to assess NELD in a way that is sensitive to context and different value-systems, whilst still integrating it into decision-making processes that typically rely on a quantified and/or monetized information basis. At the same time, decision-making needs to factor in the risks of NELD if solutions are to meet the needs of those affected. While this insight may not be new, it still remains to be translated into action – designing an institutional framework around loss and damage is an opportunity to do so.